Problems to be solved in the scientific management

2022-08-24
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Problems to be solved in the scientific management of quantitatively packed commodities

from January 1, 2006, the new measures for the measurement supervision and management of quantitatively packed commodities began to be implemented. At the same time, the "C" mark, which is the qualification mark of enterprise measurement assurance ability, is also actively promoted. In order to better implement the new management measures and make enterprises more willing to accept the "C" mark management, we are now discussing the inspection of quantitatively packed goods and the implementation of the new management measures for quantitatively packed goods based on our work practice in the inspection of quantitatively packed goods in recent years

first, use a steel wire hook to toggle the steel ball of the oil outlet valve in the oil pump, technical documents or basis problems

1 We should speed up the formulation of industry standards and specified testing conditions to ensure the uniformity of testing data issued by different testing institutions under different conditions. Example 1: for commodities with large changes in net content caused by moisture changes, JJF1070 - 2000 "rules for the measurement and inspection of net content of quantitatively packed commodities" stipulates that soaps and soaps must be tested when leaving the factory, Jjf1070- 2005 "rules for the measurement and inspection of net content of quantitatively packed goods" (hereinafter referred to as "JJF") has added relevant provisions on flour, but has not made clear provisions on other goods. For example, in the past, there was no regulation on the moisture content of flour. The factory moisture content stipulated by the state was less than 14%, and the shelf life of flour was 6 months. In these 6 months, the moisture loss was inevitable. At most, it could return to the moisture content of raw grain (about 12.5%), that is, the moisture loss was 1.5%. However, jjf1070-2005 and the national flour standard (GB) do not stipulate the testing conditions, so different results will appear under different conditions. When just off the production line, the average net content may be 25kg, which is just qualified; After a few months, retest this batch of goods. Due to the water loss of 1.5%, the average net content may be 24.625kg, that is, almost every piece of goods exceeds the specified allowable shortage (the allowable shortage of 25kg goods is 1%). Similarly, there is an urgent need to specify the testing conditions for quantitatively packaged goods containing water, such as rice and cakes

example 2: the net content of volatile quantitatively packaged goods (such as ether, etc.) is continuously decreasing with the passage of time within the shelf life. Even if the net content of each enterprise is qualified at the time of delivery, it may not be in line with the working time of the hydraulic system in the field of circulation. To solve this problem, there are two solutions: (1) for low value, it can be considered to strengthen the airtightness, but the cost is not cost-effective. It is suggested to specify factory inspection; (2) for high-value products, the enterprise should strengthen the tightness to reduce losses

2. The "small label" problem of net content

jjf1070- 2005 only stipulates that the net content is not allowed to be less, but does not stipulate that the net content is more. In order to avoid unqualified net content inspection, some enterprises deliberately reduce the marking of net content during production. For example, when testing the products of an enterprise for the first time, the average net content of the goods marked with a net content of 600g is 580g, which is unqualified; In the second test, only the marked net content was changed to 500g, but the test result was still 580g (it became qualified), but the commodity price did not change. Therefore, the author believes that the positive deviation should be stipulated in the inspection rules

3. Sampling problems in testing

in reality, enterprises produce dozens or even hundreds of goods with the same method and the same measuring instrument. Whether in the inspection of the net content of quantitatively packed goods or in the on-site inspection of the "C" mark evaluation, it is unrealistic to test the quantitatively packed goods produced by this enterprise in accordance with the "five identical" standards, both in terms of time and the affordability of the enterprise

for example, a distillery produces more than 200 kinds of wine, most of which are packaged in 100ml, 250ml and 500ml. If tested according to the "five identical" standard, a total of more than 600 varieties need to be tested. Alcohol detection is destructive detection. When implementing enterprise internal detection, great losses will be caused by destructive detection. In addition, it takes 900 working hours, equivalent to more than 100 working days, to test the wine of an enterprise by the testing department, which takes one and a half hours according to one specification

therefore, the author suggests that when testing enterprises, it is possible to spot check only one or two ways according to the different specifications of goods produced by enterprises with the same production method and the same measuring instrument; Different methods and measuring instruments are tested separately. This test is both representative and in line with the principle of saving. If we use this method to test the enterprise mentioned in the above example, we only need to spot check 6 specifications, and the enterprise only loses 6000 yuan of wine (based on an average of 20 yuan per bottle of wine), and the test time is less than two working days

if the above problems can be clearly explained in the relevant documents, they can be solved

4. The correction value of the average actual content of samples

has been added to the new management measures( λ OS) this correction value makes the test results more reasonable on the one hand, and solves the problem of unqualified enterprise packaging caused by random error and zero drift of the machine when the enterprise packaging equipment is running at the quantitative point; On the other hand, it has brought loopholes to supervision and management, allowing enterprises to take advantage of it. For example, both enterprises produce 25kg quantitative packaging goods. One household uses the quantitative automatic weighing instrument with X (1) accuracy, and the other household uses the quantitative automatic weighing instrument with X (0.2) accuracy. The same quantitative point is 24.95kg. 99 bags are produced each, and 13 bags of samples are taken for testing. The results are shown in Table 1 and table 2

the two enterprises also set the quantitative point at 24.95kg, and the results showed that one was qualified and the other was unqualified

facing this situation, enterprises have two choices to ensure that they do not give more or less goods: one is to choose high-precision measuring instruments to make their products just meet the maximum allowable shortage; The other is to select two high-precision measuring instruments, one to slightly increase the quantitative point and one to lower it, and then package at the same time, and adjust the net packaging content of the product to the limit value of deviation plus and minus, so as to increase the correction value

5. Specific detection problems

(1) the systematic error caused by the measurement method should be deducted

for example: measuring flour by weighing method. The weight density used in the verification of the scale is 7.2kg/dm3, and the volume of 25kg weight. Many high consumption, low efficiency and other mechanical products in the market are gradually eliminated to 3.47dm3, while the flour density is about 1.2kg/dm3, and the volume of 25kg flour is 20.83dm3. The extra volume of 17.36dm3 is affected by air buoyancy. Calculated according to the air density of 1.2kg/m3, the buoyancy is 20.8g. This is a systematic error. If not deducted, an enterprise with a daily output of 400t flour will lose about 121.65t a year, which is equivalent to 240000 yuan at the price of 2 yuan/kg

(2) inconsistency of measurement results between testing institutions caused by measurement uncertainty

jjf1070- 2005 stipulates that "the expanded uncertainty of the measurement and inspection results of the net content of quantitatively packed goods shall not exceed 0.2T". To take the simplest example, a 50kg quantitatively packed commodity is also weighed, and both detection institutions weigh it with a scale with a division value of 50g and a division number of 2000, and the tolerance of the scale is ± 1.0e, that is, 50g; If one weigher +50g and the other weigher - 50g, they are all qualified and comply with the provisions of jjf1070-2005 (the allowable shortage of 50kg quantitatively packed goods is 1%, that is, 500g, 0.2T is 100g). When the average deviation of 50kg quantitatively packed goods is 0, one is qualified and the other is unqualified. If the measurement uncertainty is used for evaluation, the uncertainty of the scale at 50kg is evaluated by class B: the procedure tolerance is 1E, the distribution half width is 1E, that is, 5 and the service life is 0g. According to the uniform distribution, its inclusion factor k=! 3. Therefore, u=50g/k=28.9g, and its expanded uncertainty is 57.7g (including factor k=2); If the measurement uncertainty is uniformly deducted from the test results, it can be uniformly determined as qualified. In this way, a batch of 50kg quantitatively packed goods will not be judged as unqualified because the average deviation is negative by a few grams. Or use another judgment principle: if the measured average value is a, the nominal net content is B, and the measurement uncertainty is C, then when a- B ≥ 0, it is judged to be qualified; When a- B + C 0, it is judged as unqualified; When AB 0 and a- B + C ≥ 0, it is impossible to judge whether it is qualified, but it is necessary to change the measuring instrument with higher accuracy or find another testing institution for testing

II. Management problems

1 We learned that some testing institutions only pour out the wine during testing, and those that cannot be poured out will be treated according to the tare weight. The wine blocked by the bottle cap and hung on the bottle wall will be included in the tare weight, resulting in insufficient net content and an average deviation of 2ml. The inspection rules clearly stipulate that tare cannot contain contents

2. Supervision and management should be strengthened for production enterprises

quantitative packaging commodity production enterprises are the source of quantitative packaging commodities, and management should be strengthened. The products of enterprises with "C" mark are exempt from inspection in the market. If the inspection cannot be strengthened, the reputation of the government will be directly affected. Enterprises that fail to pass the "C" mark should be tested regularly in order to understand the production status of the enterprise and find problems in time

3. The management of the market circulation field should be appropriate and reasonable

the inspection of the market circulation field should focus on the enterprises that fail to pass the "C" mark. For the enterprises that have passed the "C" mark, the authority of market inspection should be raised to the provincial level, so that the enterprises can feel the benefits of passing the "C" mark, and cannot let many of them suffer damage. Most of the enterprises that pass the "C" sign are large-scale enterprises with a wide range of sales. If enterprises in all provinces, cities and counties across the country are monitored and tested, an enterprise may be inspected thousands of times a year. No matter who can't bear it, the enterprise will lose the motivation to pass the "C" sign

in short, we should not only strengthen the preparation and revision of technical documents to ensure the synchronization with the times and the needs of production and life, but also strengthen management, solve various problems in reality with a scientific and pragmatic attitude, so as to promote the development of quantitative packaging commodity production enterprises, effectively solve the technical and management problems encountered in the production and circulation fields, and protect the interests of both enterprises and the people, Pave the way for the promotion of the "C" sign

reprinted from: legal measurement

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